Ingredients Glossary

Absorbent Capable of incorporating or assimilating moisture or oil.

Acne Cosmetics Acne caused by certain irritating preparations.

Additives Ingredients designed to perform the main activity of a product.

Age Spots Brown spots found on the skin which are visible evidence of accumulated long term sun damage. Also called “liver spots.”

Alcohols Alcohols may be drying or lubricating to the skin. They may range from clear liquids to waxy solids. May be used as emollients, humectants, lubricants, emulsifiers.

Allergen A substance which would produce an allergic response. Allergens are at times confused with irritants. (See irritants)

Allergy An allergy occurs when the body creates histamines to fight a harmless substance when it may seem to be a threat.

Anti-Inflammatory An ingredient which works against inflammation such as swelling, redness or blistering.

Anti-Oxidant An ingredient that prevents other ingredients from becoming rancid.

Anti-Phlogistic Anti-inflammatory, reduces redness.

Antiseptic A chemical agent that prevents the growth of bacteria.

Aromatic When a product has a fragrant smell.

Astringent Performs a tightening action on the skin.

Base The base product is a group of ingredients which provide the basis for the formula.

Binder A substance which causes the product to increase in consistency, therefore holding the ingredients together.

Botanical Derived from plants.

Buffer To lessen the effect of the product.

Calming Soothing, having a sedating effect.

Chemical A substance formed by altering the molecular structure of a natural material or combining two or more elements to form a new substance. (See synthetic)

Collagen A fibrous protein found in the connective tissue that makes skin resistant to stretching.

Comedone A mass of solidified sebum, blackened by oxidation, clogging the follicle.

Congestion Excessive internal buildup. This prevents the skin from functioning properly.

Corynebacterium Bacterial organism associated with acne in sebaceous follicles.

Cosmetic According to the original 1938 legal definition, cosmetics are: “(1) articles intended to be rubbed, poured, sprinkled or otherwise applied to the human body or any part thereof for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness or altering the appearance and, (2) articles intended for use as a component of any such articles; except that such term shall not include soap.”

Cyst Large raised and swollen skin disorder formed when several impacted follicles break down and merge together.

Decongestant To diminish and break down unwanted deposits within the skin.

Dehydration A common esthetic condition in which the skin has a tissue paper-like appearance with superficial lining which is caused by external factors.

Dermatologist Physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the skin, hair, nails and mucous membranes.

Dermis The layer of the skin beneath the epidermis. The dermis is largely fibrous and contains collagen and elastin – the proteins responsible for the support and elasticity of the skin. The dermis also contains tiny sensory nerve endings and blood vessels.

Disencrustation Any chemical action used to break down excess keratinization.

Disinfectant An agent used to destroy germs.

Distended Capillaries An expansion of the circulatory system caused by dietary intake, physical, mental or environmental abuse producing an overly red appearance to the skin.

Elasticity This is a condition in which the skin has the ability to “spring back” into shape and is usually found in more youthful skins.

Emollient Softens and soothes the skin. Provides a mild seal to the skin.

Emulsifier A substance capable of physically binding oil to water.

Enzyme Organic catalyst produced by living cells; may stimulate or accelerate biochemical reactions at the body’s normal temperature.

Epidermis Uppermost layer of the skin. The epidermis is highly cellular and divided into layers: the basal (bottom) layer that produces new cells and contains melanocytes or pigment-producing cells; a thick prickle cell layer; the granular cell layer and the stratum corneum or top layer.

Esthetician A qualified skin care specialist trained to administer beauty treatments for the skin.

Exfoliate To remove, as in the removal of dead surface skin by a scrub, peel or mask. Exfoliation is a popular method for thecontrol of cell regeneration.

Extract An herbal concentrate produced by separating the essential or active part of an herb into a solvent material tadalafil 10mg.

Follicle Excretory sac or gland.

Fragrance A synthetic oil added to a product to make its aroma more appealing to the consumer.

Humectant Used to attract or retain moisture in the skin.

Hydration The absorption or penetration of water into the skin.

Hyperactivity A skin that is excessively active is considered to be hyper. It is usually characterized by inflammation, irritation,increased circulation, dilated capillaries, papules, pustules, etc. This skin type needs to be sedated.

Hypoactivity This is a sluggish, inactive skin type. It is usually characterized by asphyxiation, suffocation, poor color, etc.

Irritant A substance that produces an adverse response (such as reddening, swelling, etc.)

Irritation A physiological response to allergies, injury, shock or excessive stimulation of the skin. Often times it produces red patches, inflammation, edema and feels warm to touch.

Keratinized This condition is typified by excess flaking of dead skin cells and has surface resistance to penetration and evacuation.

Lines This condition is typified by excess flaking of dead skin cells and has surface resistance to penetration and evacuation.

Melanin A brown pigment produced by pigment producing skin cells (melanocytes). Increased amount of melanin pigment results in a tanned hue following exposure to UV light.

Milia Small keratinized cysts lodged in the epidermis. Formed by the encasement of sebum and appearing as a white, hardened grain.

Papule Trapped sebum and bacteria surrounded by swollen tissue due to prolonged follicular congestion.

Pigmentation This condition is the excessive or underdeveloped pigmentation resulting in freckles, birthmarks, liver or age spots.

Proliferation To encourage regeneration of new cells.

Purge To flush the skin of its impurities.

Pustule The advanced stage of a papule.

Retinoic Acid Vitamin A acid typically used in products for the treatment of acne, and certain signs of photodamage.

Rubefactant Produces redness in the skin through stimulation of the circulatory system.

Scarring This condition is the result of trauma to the skin resulting in irregular tissue formation and should be noted on the facial zone chart.

Sealant Aids in binding moisture to the skin and prevents moisture loss.

Sebum Grease-like secretion of the sebaceous gland. Contains fat and cellular debris.

Stratum Corneum Outermost layer of dead cells in the epidermis which protects living tissue from external stimuli and forms a barrier to keep moisture in.

Suffocation The skin’s inability to react through a positive exchange with the environment leading to discoloration, excessive dryness and comedone formation.

Sun Damage Redness, flaking and pain are the indications of over-exposure to the sun’s damaging rays which can result in sunburn, a variety of skin eruptions, irregular pigmentation, premature aging and possibly skin cancer.

Toxic Reaction A counterproductive condition induced by the application of an outside agent. Usually a temporary condition.

Ultraviolet A (UVA), Ultraviolet B (UVB) Two types of solar radiation within the ultraviolet range that reach the earth’s surface, resulting in photodamage, suntan, sunburn and potentially, skin cancer.

Vasco-constructive Causes narrowing of the blood vessels/capillaries.

Vasco-dilator Causes expansion of the blood vessels/capillaries.

Wrinkles Condition in which the skin starts to show its first signs of aging, due to gravitational force, dryness, facial expressions and a thinning of texture.